18 Cardiology Mnemonics for Nurse Practitioner Students

Cramming for exams? In my days as a nurse practitioner student, I employed several study tactics to help memorize content for both the certification exam and my NP program finals. Hand made flashcards littered my coffee table. Cheat sheets fell from dilapidated folders in my backpack. My favorite study tactic to fall back on was thinking up (or borrowing) study mnemonics. If you're a nurse practitioner student struggling to study for exams, these cardiac mnemonics just might prevent you from having a finals-induced MI. 

Anatomy: Aortic Valves (left to right)

Toilet Paper My A$$

Tricuspid valve

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Mitral (bicuspid) valve

Aortic semilunar valve

 

Drugs: Side Effects of ACE Inhibitors

CAPTOPRIL

Cough

Angioedema

Potassium excess

Taste changes

Orthostatic hypotension

Pressure drop (hypotension)

Renal failure or Rash

Indomethacin inhibition

Leukopenia

 

Drugs: Contraindications to ACE Inhibitors

PARK

Pregnancy

Allergy or Angioedema

Renal artery stenosis or Renal failure

K - hyperkalemia (potassium greater than 5.5)

 

Hypertension: Secondary Hypertension Causes

ABCDEF

Apnea

Birth control or Bad kidney

Coarctation of the aorta, Cushing's syndrome, Conn's syndrome

Drugs (alcohol, decongestants, estrogens)

Endocrine disorders or Erythropoietin

Fibromuscular dysplasia

 

CHF: Causes of Exacerbation

FAILURE

Forgot medication

Arrhythmia / Anemia

Ischemia / Infarction / Infection

Lifestyle (too much salt)

Upregulation of cardiac output (pregnancy, hyperthyroidism)

Renal failure

Embolism (pulmonary)

 

CHF: Treatment

LMNOP

Lasix

Morphine

Nitrites

Oxygen

vasoPressors

 

Coronary Artery Disease: Risk Factors

HOPEFULSSS

Hypertension

Obesity

Peripheral vascular disease

Elevated LHL

FMH

Up glucose (diabetes)

Low HDL

Smoking

Sex - male

Sedentary lifestyle

 

Peripheral Circulation: Findings in Acute Limb Ischemia

The 5 P's 

Pain

Pallor

Pulselessness

Paralysis

Paresthesia

 

Murmurs: Describing a Murmur

SCRIPT

Site

Character (harsh, soft, blowing etc)

Radiation

Intensity

Pitch

Timing

 

Murmurs: Innocent Murmur Features

8S's 

Soft

Systolic

Short

Sounds (S1 & S2) normal

Symptomless

Special tests normal (X-ray, EKG)

Standing / Sitting (vary with position)

Sternal depression

 

Tachycardia: Ventricular Tachycardia Treatment

LAMB

Lidocaine

Amiodarone

Magnesium/Mexiltene

Beta Blocker

 

Tachycardia: Supraventricular Tachycardia Treatment

ABCDE

Adenosine

Beta-blocker

Calcium channel antagonist

Digoxin

Excitation (vagal stimulation)

 

Bradycardia: Causes

PAD HIM

Physiological (athlete, sleep) or Paroxysmal

AV block

Drugs (beta-blockers, digoxin, amiodarone)

Hypothyroid or Hypothermia

Icteric

MI

 

Atrial Fibrillation: Causes of New Onset

THE ATRIAL FIBS

Thyroid

Hypothermia

Embolism

Alcohol

Trauma (cardiac contusion)

Recent surgery (post CABG)

Ischemia

Atrial enlargement

Lone or idiopathic

Fever, anemia, high-output states

Infarct

Bad valves (mitral stenosis)

Stimulants (cocaine, caffeine)

 

Atrial Fibrillation: Management

ABCD

Anti-coagulate

Beta-blockers

Cardiovert

Digoxin

 

Pericarditis: Causes

CARDIAC RIND

Collagen vascular disease

Aortic aneurysm

Radiation

Drugs (ex. hydralazine)

Infections

Acute renal failure

Cardiac infarction

Rheumatic fever

Injury

Neoplasms

Dressler's syndrome 

 

MI: Complications of Myocardial Infarction

DARTH VADER

Death

Arrhythmia

Rupture

Tamponade

Heart failure (acute or chronic)

Valve disease

Aneurysm of ventricles

Dressler's synrome

thromboEmbolism

Recurrence or mitral Regurgitation

 

MI: Therapeutic Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

O BATMAN

Oxygen

Beta blocker

Aspirin

Thrombolytics (ex. heparin)

Morphine 

ACE inhibitor

Nitroglycerin

 

What are your favorite cardiac mnemonics?

 

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